10.1 General
The organization shall determine opportunities for improvement (see 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3) and implement necessary actions to achieve the intended outcomes of its environmental management system.

10.2 Nonconformity and corrective action
When a nonconformity occurs, the organization shall:

a) react to the nonconformity and, as applicable:
1) take action to control and correct it;
2) deal with the consequences, including mitigating adverse environmental impacts;
b) evaluate the need for action to eliminate the causes of the nonconformity, in order that it does not recur or occur elsewhere, by:
1) reviewing the nonconformity;
2) determining the causes of the nonconformity;
3) determining if similar nonconformities exist, or could potentially occur;
c) implement any action needed;
d) review the effectiveness of any corrective action taken;
e) make changes to the environmental management system, if necessary.

Corrective actions shall be appropriate to the significance of the effects of the nonconformities encountered, including the environmental impact(s).

The organization shall retain documented information as evidence of:
— the nature of the nonconformities and any subsequent actions taken;
— the results of any corrective action.

10.3 Continual improvement
The organization shall continually improve the suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the environmental management system to enhance environmental performance.